How to pronounce '-ed' as /t/ and /d/ in English. | Pronunciation

You should be aware now that -ed is used in the past tense and some adjectives; however, how it’s pronunciation might be a problem for many English leaners. Below are some words to show the solution to this problem.

Pattern: When you see these voiceless consonants: f, k, s, p, ʃ , ʈʃ
Always pronounce the -ed as /t/ as in these words

  1. booked
  2. passed
  3. popped
  4. pushed
  5. watched

Do you know of any more words like these that end with a /t/ sound of -ed?

In vowels and voiced consonants i.e /b, r, g, v, z, l, m, dʒ, ʒ, the -ed is pronounced as /d/


  1. Robbed
  2. bared
  3. bugged
  4. loved
  5. labelled
  6. buzzed
  7. doomed
  8. messaged
  9. changed

These are the two sounds of -ed pronounced as /t/ and /d/. Can you add more to the list?